Mr Olmert is the first former prime minister in Israeli history to face criminal charges, the office said.
Mr Olmert's personal secretary, Shula Zaken, has also been charged with corruption.
One of the charges against Mr Olmert is that he accepted cash envelopes from US businessman Morris Talansky with sums amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Mr Olmert admits taking money, but insists the funds were legal donations to help his campaigns for re-election as mayor of Jerusalem and for the leadership of the Likud, his former party.
In the second case, Mr Olmert is accused of duplicating funding for his trips abroad.
Police have said they suspect the "considerable sums" that remained after the travel expenses were paid for were transferred by Mr Olmert to a special account his travel agency administered for him.
The third case involves alleged conflict of interest. Officials have alleged Mr Olmert arranged investment opportunities for a friend, Uri Messner, while he was industry minister.