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  1. #13041
    Destiny's Soldier Destiny's Soldier is offline
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    Total Rubbish.

    See here

    3,477,403 Undersea Volcanoes. In 1992 when the Rio Earth Summit was going on the experts said they were 10 - 11 thousand. Now we know they're much higher.

    Up yours



    Underwater volcanoes   

    Underwater volcanoes heating Antarctic waters
    13 Jul 11 - Scientists find previously unknown underwater volcanoes around the remote South Sandwich Islands. The volcanoes stand almost two miles tall and contain 3-mile-diameter craters. See Underwater volcanoes heating Antarctic waters


    Vindication - Scientists admit that underwater volcanoes "Bake Sediments, Add to Warming"
    15 Nov 10 - "Undersea hot lava is baking ocean sediments and releasing greenhouse gases." See Underwater volcanoes Bake Sediments, Add to Warming


    Exploring underwater volcanoes near New Zealand
    9 Apr 11 - Scientists will explore five major submarine
    volcanoes for mineral deposits and hydrothermal activity.
    I wonder how much heat these submarine volcanoes are
    pumping into the seas?
    See Exploring underwater volcanoes near New Zealand


    Guess what has been heating the seas
    Look at this 24-second video, multiply it by several
    thousand, and see if you can guess what has been
    heating the seas.
    Perfect Moments | GoHawaii.com


    Eruptions as big as Pompeii under Arctic ice
    26 Nov 10 - Is it just a coincidence that the ice has been melting above those gigantic eruptions?
    See Eruptions as big as Pompeii under Arctic ice



    Huge underwater volcano found off Indonesia
    12 Jul 10 - Taller than all but three or four mountains in Indonesia,
    the two-mile-high volcano was found in an area about the size of
    Delaware. Delaware is the second smallest state in the United
    States. Imagine how many undiscovered underwater volcanoes
    there must be!
    See Huge underwater volcano found off Indonesia


    Underwater volcano erupts 90 miles north of Saipan -
    Blasts ash up to 40,000 feet
    31 May 10 - The National Weather Service on Guam today announced
    that an undersea volcano has erupted between the islands of Sarigan and
    Anatahan in the Northern Mariana Islands.
    See Underwater volcano 90 miles north of Saipan


    Massive volcanism created underwater plateau
    one-third the size of the United States
    27 Jun 10 - The Kerguelen Plateau, an underwater plateau
    one-third the size of the United States, is the result of massive
    volcanic eruptions about 100 million years ago. Intermittent
    eruptions continue today at Heard and McDonald Islands.
    See
    Massive volcanism created underwater plateau one-third size of US


    3,477,403 Underwater Volcanoes EXACTLY?
    9 Apr 10 - Reader calls me on my numbers
    "I can understand the 'Watermelons' publishing glaringly stupid data, but
    please don't fall prey to the same temptation yourself.
    See 3,477,403 Underwater Volcanoes EXACTLY?

    Deepest black smokers ever discovered - 12 Apr 10 - Experts say the superheated waters inside these volcanic vents are hot enough to melt lead. And we wonder what is heating our seas. See Deepest black smokers ever discovered


    Acid Oceans Due to Underwater Volcanoes?
    3,477,403 Underwater Volcanoes
    31 Mar 10 - New study refutes theory that humans are acidifying oceans
    Bolsters my contention that underwater volcanoes are heating the seas.
    See Acid Oceans Due to Underwater Volcanoes?

    A fiery deep-sea blast
    17 Dec 09 - These two short videos show the deepest erupting undersea volcano ever seen, with "fiery molten lava bubbles exploding 4,000 feet beneath the Pacific Ocean." The lava is about 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit.
    Underwater volcanoes heat the seas


    Highly active undersea volcanoes -
    and we wonder why our oceans are warming
    11 May 09 - Some of these volcanoes are as big as New Zealand's Mt.
    Ruapehu, the largest active volcano in New Zealand. And we wonder why
    our oceans are warming.
    See Highly active undersea volcanoes -
    and we wonder why our oceans are warming


    Eruption of the underwater "Brimstone Pit"
    "At any moment you felt it could go Mount St. Helens," says the narrator,
    from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. "You could see the glow
    of the lava inside the pit."
    Great video: WHOI: Erupting Underwater Volcano - YouTube


    Major undersea eruptions
    4 Nov 09 – Here are links to a couple of cool videos showing huge
    amounts of ash, rocks and steam emanating from underwater volcanoes.
    See Major undersea eruptions


    Scientists stumble across huge underwater mountain
    29 May 09 - Marine scientists have discovered a massive
    underwater volcano off Indonesia’s western coast. The 4,600m
    (15,000ft) mountain spans 30 miles at its base, with its summit
    some 1,300 meters below the surface. Its discovery was
    "completely unexpected."
    See Scientists stumble across huge underwater mountain

    Galapagos volcano erupts -
    lava flowing into the ocean
    12 Apr 09 - Again, we have 2,150-
    degree lava pouring into the ocean –
    ten times the boiling point - and we
    keep blaming humans for heating the
    seas.
    Galapagos volcano erupts, lava
    flowing into the ocean e
    .
    La Cumbre volcano erupts on Fernandina Island
    Photo credit: Galapagos National Park

    Underwater volcano building new mountain
    7 May 09 – “An active underwater volcano near the island
    of Guam erupts so frequently that it has built a new cone 131ft
    high (13 stories) and 984ft wide in just three years.
    See Underwater volcano building new mountain


    Hot springs, coral, found in chilly Arctic waters
    11 Aug 05 - Researchers were stunned when their mini-sub glided into
    an area north of the Arctic island of Jan Mayen featuring pinnacles from
    which streamed water nearly 500 degrees F and saw sea life including
    shrimp and coral.
    See Hot springs, coral, found in chilly Arctic waters
    .

    Undersea volcanic eruption in Tonga heating the water?
    19 Mar 09 - Sea Surface Temperature (SST) maps show a warm anomaly in the Tonga that extends off to the east. Is that a result of the underwater volcano, or just a coincidence?
    See Undersea volcanic eruption in Tonga heating the water?


    .
    Underwater volcano erupts off Tonga
    19 Mar 09 – Spectacular columns of steam and smoke spewed
    out of the seaabout 6 miles (10 km) from the main island of Tongatapu
    - an area where up to36 undersea volcanoes are clustered. Large
    amounts of pumice from the volcanowill likely clog beaches on the
    southern coast of nearby Fiji islands shortly.
    See Underwater volcano erupts off Tonga
    .
    .
    Global warming may be caused by underwater volcanoes
    (Which I've been saying for years)
    8 Dec 08 – A new study shows that the rise in land temperatures can
    be tied directly to increased heat and humidity coming from warmer
    oceans, which in turn may be caused solely by natural forces, including
    underwater volcanoes.
    See Global warming may be caused by underwater volcanoes
    .
    .
    Ocean Floor Geysers Warming The Seas
    (And we wonder why the oceans are warming)
    22 Sep 08 - "It's like finding Old Faithful in Illinois. When we went out to
    try to get a feel for how much heat was coming from the ocean floor and
    how much sea water might be moving through it, we found that there was
    much more heat than we expected at the outcrops."
    See Ocean Floor Geysers Warming The Seas
    .
    .
    Geothermal heat may be melting the Greenland glaciers
    Nov 2007 – “Hansen's model is wrong! In reality, the Greenland and
    Antarctic ice sheets occupy deep basins, and cannot slide down a plane.
    Furthermore glacial flow depends on stress as well as temperature, and
    much of the ice sheets are well below melting point.
    See Geothermal heat may be melting Greenland glaciers
    .
    .
    World's deepest chain of undersea volcanoes to be explored
    1 Sep 08 — Scientists at the National Oceanography Centre are set to
    explore the world's deepest undersea volcanoes five kilometers beneath
    the Caribbean.
    See Deepest chain of undersea volcanoes to be explored
    .
    .
    'Black smokers' found in Arctic Ocean
    4 Aug 08 - Jets of searingly hot water spewing up from the sea floor
    have been discovered in a far-northern zone of the Arctic Ocean,
    Swiss-based scientists announced Monday.
    See 'Black smokers' found in Arctic Ocean.
    .
    .
    Boiling Hot Water Found in Frigid Arctic Sea
    24 Jul 08 – “Many miles inside the Arctic Circle, scientists have found
    vents of scalding liquid rising out of the seafloor at temperatures that are
    more than twice the boiling point of water.
    See Boiling Hot Water Found in Frigid Arctic Sea
    .
    .
    Undersea volcanic activity blamed for mass extinction 93 million years ago
    16 Jul 08 - Researchers from the University of Alberta, Canada, find evidence of
    underwater volcanism in rocks dating to a mass extinction 93 million years ago.
    See Undersea volcanic activity blamed for mass extinction
    .
    .
    Huge Underwater Volcanoes in the Arctic Ocean,
    but scientists see no significant connection to melting ice?
    27 Jun 08 – The eruptions discharge large amounts of carbon dioxide,
    helium, trace metals and heat into the water over long distances, but
    scientists see no significant connection to melting ice.
    See No significant connection to melting ice
    .
    .
    Giant Undersea Volcano Found Off Iceland
    (And we wonder why the oceans are warming)
    22 Apr 08 - It's an active volcano that rises about 3,300 feet (1,000 meters)
    above the surrounding sections, coming within 1,300 feet (400 meters) of the surface.
    See Giant Undersea Volcano Found Off Iceland
    .
    .
    Hawaiian volcano pumping more lava than usual into the ocean
    5 Jul 08 - The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory said Saturday that
    Hawaii's Kilauea volcano is pumping more lava than usual into the ocean.
    See Hawaiian volcano pumping more lava than usual into the ocean
    .
    .
    Magma May Be Melting Greenland Ice
    18 Dec 07 - I added another article to this posting
    13 Dec 07 - Scientists have found at least one natural-magma hotspot under
    the Greenland Ice Sheet where heat from Earth’s insides could seep through,
    See Magma May Be Melting Greenland Ice
    .
    .
    Arctic seabed afire with lava-spewing volcanoes
    25 Jun 08 - Red-hot magma has been rising from deep inside the earth
    and blown the tops off dozens of submarine volcanoes, four kilometers
    below the ice. And we wonder what is melting the ice.
    See Arctic seabed afire with lava-spewing volcanoes
    .
    .

    Underwater Volcanic Eruptions, Not Meteor,
    May Have Killed Dinosaurs
    New discovery validates theories in Not by Fire but by Ice
    30 Oct 07 - "A series of monumental volcanic eruptions in India
    may have killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, not a meteor
    impact in the Gulf of Mexico.
    See Volcanic Eruptions Killed Dinosaurs
    .
    Rajahmundry quarry near the Bay of Bengal,
    about 1000 km from the center of the Deccan
    Traps near Mumbai. (Photo courtesy Gerta Keller)

    Mount St. Helens melted the glaciers, but Arctic volcanoes don’t?
    3 Jul 08 - When Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, it melted so much
    ice that a giant flood swept a slurry of water, sediment and trees, along
    with logging trucks, bridges and household debris down the Toutle River
    at speeds of up to 50 mph.
    See Mount St. Helens melted the glaciers
    .
    .
    Several Huge Active Submarine Volcanoes Found Near Fiji
    20 Jun 08 - “We know more about the surface of Mars than we
    know about the ocean seafloor.”
    See Active Submarine Volcanoes Found Near Fiji
    .
    .
    Antarctic glaciers surge due to volcanic activity?
    24 Feb 08 - Much higher up the glacier there is evidence of a volcano that erupted
    through the ice about 2,000 years ago. "The whole region could be volcanically active,
    releasing geothermal heat to melt the base of the ice and help its slide towards the sea."
    See Antarctic glaciers surge to ocean
    .
    .
    Mysterious "Swarm" of Quakes Strikes Oregon Water
    (And we wonder why the oceans are warming)
    16 Apr 08 - About 600 earthquakes have been recorded about 190 miles offshore
    from Yachats. Earthquake swarms normally indicate volcanic activity. Scientists say
    they may find lava oozing out onto the seafloor or hot water percolating up from
    magma-heated undersea hot springs.
    See Mysterious Swarm of Quakes Strikes Oregon Water
    .
    .
    The Sounds of Climate Change
    Underwater volcanoes heating the seas?
    8 Jan 08 - "Earthquakes and magma spewing on the seafloor
    go hand in hand ... there are new heat sources right off the coast
    of Deception Island that no one was aware of before.
    See Sounds of Climate Change
    .
    .
    Warming Deep-Sea Temperatures Ended Last Ice Age
    Study Validates My Theories
    See Warming Deep-Sea Temperatures Ended Last Ice Age
    .
    .
    Unrecognized Underwater Volcanic Activity
    13 Jul 07 - Transform faults are not developing or behaving as
    theories of plate tectonics say they should. The faults are often
    segmented and show signs of recent or ongoing volcanism.
    See Unrecognized Underwater Volcanic Activity
    .
    .
    Three Million Underwater Volcanoes
    9 Jul 07 - Researchers estimate that in total there could be about 3 million submarine
    volcanoes, 39,000 of which rise more than 1000 meters over the sea bed.
    See Three Million Underwater Volcanoes
    .
    .
    Japanese scientists discover huge undersea lava plateau
    9 Jan 07 - See Underwater Lava Plateau
    .
    .
    Pacific Ocean gives birth to new volcanic island
    9 Nov 06 - See New Volcanic Island Near Tonga
    


    Three Million Underwater Volcanoes
    9 Jul 07 - Researchers estimate that in total there could be about 3 million submarine
    volcanoes, 39,000 of which rise more than 1000 meters over the sea bed.
    See Three Million Underwater Volcanoes
    Rivers of lava pouring into the seas at 2,150 degrees
    - and we wonder why the world's oceans are warming?
    18 Jun 07 - See Kiluaea rumbles with 260 quakes
    .
    .
    Ocean around Japan warming fast -15 May 07
    The ocean around Japan has warmed up faster than elsewhere in the world
    over the last hundred years, Japan's Meteorological Agency said on Tuesday.
    (More proof of underwater volcanoes heating the seas)
    See Ocean Around Japan Warming Fast
    .


    Underwater volcanic activity in the Atlantic stronger than anyone realized
    (Guess what’s heating the oceans)
    2 Aug 06 - See Detachment Faults
    .
    Volcanic Eruptions, Not Meteor, May Have Killed Dinosaurs
    New discovery validates theories in Not by Fire but by Ice
    30 Oct 07 - "A series of monumental volcanic eruptions in India
    may have killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, not a meteor
    impact in the Gulf of Mexico.
    See Volcanic Eruptions Killed Dinosaurs
    Rajahmundry quarry near the Bay of Bengal,
    about 1000 km from the center of the Deccan
    Traps near Mumbai. (Photo courtesy Gerta Keller

    Underwater Volcanoes Heating the Pacific Ocean
    27 Jul 06 - "A new type of volcano may be heating up the floor of the western
    Pacific Ocean," says this article posted on National Geographic News and on Yahoo.
    See Underwater Volcanoes Heating Pacific Ocean
    .
    .
    Record hotspot found underwater - 26 May 06
    Scientists working in the southern Atlantic Ocean have found a 407 °C hydrothermal
    vent, the hottest yet known on an ocean floor.
    See Record Hotspot
    .
    .
    Underwater volcanic activity in Arctic Ocean
    far stronger than anyone imagined
    See Volcanoes in Arctic Ocean
    .
    .
    Scientists Discover Major Underwater
    Volcano Off Antarctic Peninsula
    And we wonder why the ice around the Antarctic Peninsula is melting?
    See Active Antarctic Volcano
    .
    .
    Hydrothermal vents pumping 500-degree
    water into Arctic Ocean
    20 Aug 05 - See 500-Degree Water
    .
    .
    Heat-loving bug found deep beneath the ice in Antarctic
    lake provides evidence of underwater volcanic activity - 30 Mar 06 –
    See Lake Vostok.
    .
    .
    Enormous Hydrothermal Megaplume
    Found in Indian Ocean
    12 Dec 05 - The plume, pumping 760°F water into the ocean, is 43.5 miles long.
    See Megaplume
    .
    .
    Hot springs found in Norwegian Sea
    11 Aug 05 – See Hot Springs
    .
    .
    Underwater volcano grows 1,000 feet in five years
    12 Apr 06 - See Nafanua
    .
    .
    Volcanic eruption under ice sheet - 23 Nov 05 -
    See Montagu Island
    .
    .
    Popping rocks reveal multiple underwater
    volcanoes off northern Mexico
    27 Oct 2005 - See Popping Rocks
    .
    .
    Underwater volcanoes pose tsunami threat
    July 28, 2005 – See Tsunami Threat
    .
    .
    Warmer oceans may be killing West Coast marine life
    13 July 2005 - See Marine Life Threatened
    .
    .
    Underwater volcano erupting 700 miles SE of Tokyo
    July 3, 2005 - See Tokyo Underwater Volcano
    .
    .
    Sea levels change faster than thought
    20 April 2005 - See Sea Levels Change Fast
    .
    .
    Underwater Volcanoes Erupting Simultaneously
    All Over the World
    14 Mar 05 - See Volcanoes Erupting Around World
    .
    .
    More than 4,300 undersea earthquakes in five days
    7 Mar 05 – See 4300 Undersea Earthquakes
    .
    .
    Naturally occurring bubbles of liquid
    carbon dioxide rising from ocean floor
    8 Jun 04 – See Liquid Carbon Dioxide
    .
    .
    Underwater volcano found off Antarctic coast
    21 May 04 - See Antarctic Underwater Volcano
    .
    .
    NASA confirms changing Atlantic currents
    15 Apr 04 - "Whether the trend is part of a natural cycle
    or the result of other factors related to global warming is unknown." NASA - NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
    .
    .
    Rapid heating in the deepest waters of the Pacific Ocean
    Underwater volcanic activity may be the culprit
    See Rapid Warming in Pacific
    .
    .
    Undersea eruptions killing billions of fish
    4 Feb 04 - See Undersea Eruptions Killing Fish
    .

    Volcanism killed the Dinosaurs
    "It wasn't the impact of an asteroid that killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago," says new research from Cardiff University in Wales. "It was a mantle plume, a huge volcanic eruption from deep within Earth's mantle...."
    See Volcanism Killed Dinosaurs


    .
    Ice ages looked like El Niño
    12 Jul 02 - See Ice Ages Looked Like El Niño

    Here's an important study showing that
    El Niño activity correlates with ice ages.
    (Meyerson, Mayewski, et al., Annals of Glaciology 35: 430-436.)

    The authors found that a shift toward cooler conditions during the Little Ice Age was concurrent with an increase in the frequency of El Niño events. This is contrary to what is generally predicted by climate models, where cooling leads to less El Niño activity and warming leads to more.

    The findings were harmonious with the historical El Niño chronology of both South America and the Nile region, which depict "increased El Niño activity during the period of the Little Ice Age and decreased El Niño activity during the Medieval Warm Period.
    http://www.co2science.org/journal/2003/v6n34c1.htm

    This goes along with what I have been saying for years - that today's increase in El Niño activity is the precursor to an ice age.

    * * * * *

    We’ve forgotten that this isn’t the first time our seas have warmed. Sea temperatures also shot upward 10º to 18ºF just prior to the last ice age.

    As the oceans warmed, evaporation increased. The excess moisture then fell to the ground as giant blizzards, giant storms and floods (Noah's Deluge type floods), and a new ice age began.

    The same thing is happening today.

    It’s not global warming, it’s ocean warming, and humans have nothing to do with it. Our seas are being heated, I believe, by underwater volcanism. Here’s why:

    We are living in a period of vastly increased volcanism, said Dixy Lee Ray in her 1993 book Environmental Overkill, the greatest in 500 years.

    Eighty percent of all volcanism (say experts at NOAA) occurs underwater.

    Therefore, underwater volcanism should also be the greatest in 500 years.

    Our seas, heated by underwater volcanism, are leading us directly into the next ice age . . . and we don’t even know it.

    That's what El Niño is all about. Warmer seas send excess moisture into the sky, leading to increased precipitation.

    Worldwide flood activity is the worst since before Christopher Columbus. In Poland, it's the worst in several thousand years. In the U.S., precipitation has increased 20 percent just since 1970. This is no coincidence.

    When that precipitation begins falling in the winter, you have the makings of an ice age.


    See "Global climate: no change" in the July 12 issued of Nature.
    Global climate 50,000 years ago was rather like that of today, the article says.
    Studies of fossilized trees in southern Chile reveal that the climate between the
    last two ice ages varied much as it does now. "Climate fluctuations closely
    resemble those we are experiencing now, including the 2--5--year spell of
    El Niño oscillations."
    http://www.nature.com/nsu/010329/010329-13.html



    "Fiery birth of a new Pacific island!"
    Lava and ash blasted through the surface of the Pacific Ocean and
    plumes of steam and smoke rose thousands of feet above the ocean's surface.
    See Kavachi Island


    Carbon dioxide
    If today's rising carbon dioxide are caused by humans, what
    caused the dramatic rise in CO2 levels at the dinosaur extinction?
    See Carbon Dioxide


    No Global Warming
    "Even with needed corrections, data still don't show the expected signature of global warming,"
    says Dr. Roy Spencer, Senior Scientist for Climate Studies NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.
    See http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/head...d13aug98_1.htm
    Last edited by Destiny's Soldier; 2nd July 2012 at 11:45 PM.
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  2. #13042
    owedtojoy owedtojoy is offline
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    Arctic temperatures from the Danish Meteorological Institute:



    And here is a good post about heat flux in teh Arctic Ocean.

    Ocean heat flux - Arctic Sea Ice

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  3. #13043
    owedtojoy owedtojoy is offline
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    Kevin Trenberth interviewed about the unusual weather on US TV.



    And an admission by an administration official:

    “We’ve had record fires in 10 states in the last decade, most of them in the West,” said Agriculture Department Undersecretary Harris Sherman, who oversees the Forest Service. Over the past 10 years, the wildfire season that normally runs from June to September expanded to include May and October. Once, it was rare to see 5 million cumulative acres burn in a year, but some recent seasons have recorded twice that.

    “The climate is changing, and these fires are a very strong indicator of that,” Sherman said
    .
    Agriculture Undersecretary On Wildfires: 'The Climate Is Changing, And These Fires Are A Very Strong Indicator Of That' | ThinkProgress
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  4. #13044
    kront999 kront999 is online now
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    On the Observed Trends and Changes in Global Sea Surface
    Temperature and Air-Sea Heat Fluxes (1984-2006)

    W. G. Large* and S. G. Yeager

    AMS Journals Online - On the Observed Trends and Changes in Global Sea Surface Temperature and Air-Sea Heat Fluxes (1984-2006)


    Abstract

    Global satellite observations show the sea surface temperature (SST) increasing since the 1970s in all ocean basins, while the net air-sea heat flux, Q, decreases. Over the period 1984-2006 the global changes are 0.28°C in SST and -9.1 W/m2 in Q, giving an effective air-sea coupling coefficient of -32 W/m2/°C. The global response in Q expected from SST alone is determined to be -12.9 W/m2, and the global distribution of the associated coupling coefficient is shown.

    Typically, about one-half (6.8 W/m2) of this SST effect on heat flux is compensated by changes in the overlying near surface atmosphere. Slab Ocean Models (SOMs) assume that ocean heating processes do not change from year to year, so that a constant annual heat flux would maintain a linear trend in annual SST. However, the necessary 6.1 W/m2 increase is not found in the downwelling longwave and shortwave fluxes, which combined show a -3 W/m2 decrease.

    The SOM assumptions are revisited to determine the most likely source of the inconsistency with observations. The indirect inference is that diminished ocean cooling due to vertical ocean processes played an important role in sustaining the observed positive trend in global SST from 1984 through 2006, despite the decrease in global surface heat flux.
    A similar situation is found in the individual basins, though magnitudes differ.

    A conclusion is that natural variability, rather than long term climate change, dominates the SST and heat flux changes over this 23 year period. On shorter time scales the relationship between SST and heat flux exhibits a variety of behaviors.

    From the Discussion and Conclusions:

    .

    A strong conclusion is that from 1984 through 2006 the upper ocean did not behave as a slab ocean model, because increasing SST and decreasing heat flux are inconsistent with SOM behavior. The most likely way for this to happen is if the warming strengthened the upper ocean stratification, so that the cooling by vertical ocean processes became less, perhaps with some shallowing of the mixing depth. Indeed, heat flux anomalies would be expected to warm SST faster than subsurface temperatures, increasing the stratification and inhibiting entrainment mixing of cold water to the surface. Although consistent, there are also other factors at work, such asthe wind and freshwater forcing, including sea-ice melt, not considered here. The inference for a dominant role for vertical ocean processes is indirect, because their time evolution is not known. However, it is supported by the data, by their dominant role in ENSO variability, and by arguments that lateral processes must be small globally and seem to be so on basin scales too, and that changes in mixing depth would need to be too large to play an important role on their own.


    .

    The implication is that natural variability dominates the SST and the order 10 W/m2 heat flux signals over 1984-2006 time period, with a significant contribution from the 1995-1996 shift from positive to negative NAO index. Also supportive of this possibility are the different ways SST and the various heat flux anomalies behave on decadal and shorter time scales. Although incomplete, the apparent much more steady behavior of SST and heat flux through the 1950s and 1960s is also consistent.





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  5. #13045
    kront999 kront999 is online now
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    Tracking the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation through the last 8,000 years : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group


    Absract

    Understanding the internal ocean variability and its influence on climate is imperative for society. A key aspect concerns the enigmatic Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a feature defined by a 60- to 90-year variability in North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures. The nature and origin of the AMO is uncertain, and it remains unknown whether it represents a persistent periodic driver in the climate system, or merely a transient feature. Here, we show that distinct, ~55- to 70-year oscillations characterized the North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere variability over the past 8,000 years. We test and reject the hypothesis that this climate oscillation was directly forced by periodic changes in solar activity. We therefore conjecture that a quasi-persistent ~55- to 70-year AMO, linked to internal ocean-atmosphere variability, existed during large parts of the Holocene. Our analyses further suggest that the coupling from the AMO to regional climate conditions was modulated by orbitally induced shifts in large-scale ocean-atmosphere circulation.


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  6. #13046
    owedtojoy owedtojoy is offline
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    Quote Originally Posted by kront999 View Post
    On the Observed Trends and Changes in Global Sea Surface
    Temperature and Air-Sea Heat Fluxes (1984-2006)

    W. G. Large* and S. G. Yeager

    AMS Journals Online - On the Observed Trends and Changes in Global Sea Surface Temperature and Air-Sea Heat Fluxes (1984-2006)
    Old research, data from before 2006, and looking at 23 years only. This paper looks at trends over many decades.

    http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journ...imate1553.html


    Recent observed ∆T estimates from Domingues et al. 2008 (blue), Ishii et al. 2009 (red) and Levitus et al. 2009 (green) compared with the 20th Century (20CEN) multimodel response (MMR) of phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) for the subsets of models including volcanic (VOL, black) and no volcanic (NoV, gray) forcings. MMR results are also shown for the CMIP3 SRES A1B scenarios (dashed black and gray), constructed from the same VOL and NoV subsets defined by the 20CEN models. Figure 1c from Gleckler et al. 2012.
    Last edited by owedtojoy; 3rd July 2012 at 11:08 AM.
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  7. #13047
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    A recommended paper by Neven of the Arctic Ice Blog on Arctic Oceanography:

    24-3 Beszczynska-Möller et al.

    In recent decades, the Arctic Ocean has changed dramatically. Exchanges through the main oceanic gateways indicate two main processes of global climatic importance—poleward oceanic heat flux into the Arctic Ocean and export of freshwater toward the North Atlantic. Since the 1990s, in particular during the International Polar Year (2007–2009), extensive observational efforts were undertaken to monitor volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar seas on scales from daily to multiyear. This paper reviews present-day estimates of oceanic fluxes and reports on technological advances and existing challenges in measuring exchanges through the main oceanic gateways to the Arctic.
    Not paywalled.
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  8. #13048
    kront999 kront999 is online now
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    A Hemispheric Mechanism for the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation
    AMS Journals Online - A Hemispheric Mechanism for the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    Abstract
    The physical processes associated with the 70-yr period climate mode, known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), are examined. Based on analyses of observational data, a deterministic mechanism relying on atmosphere–ocean–sea ice interactions is proposed for the AMO. Variations in the thermohaline circulation are reflected as uniform sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic. These anomalies are associated with a hemispheric wavenumber-1 sea level pressure (SLP) structure in the atmosphere that is amplified through atmosphere–ocean interactions in the North Pacific. The SLP pattern and its associated wind field affect the sea ice export through Fram Strait, the freshwater balance in the northern North Atlantic, and consequently the strength of the large-scale ocean circulation. It generates sea surface temperature anomalies with opposite signs in the North Atlantic and completes a negative feedback. The authors find that the time scale of the cycle is associated with the thermohaline circulation adjustment to freshwater forcing, the SST response to it, the oceanic adjustment in the North Pacific, and the sea ice response to the wind forcing. Finally, it is argued that the Great Salinity Anomaly in the late 1960s and 1970s is part of AMO.

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  9. #13049
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    Causes(?) of ocean warming | Climate Etc.



    I suspect that the reasoning behind the Gleckler et al. Nature Climate Change article will carry the day in the forthcoming IPCC AR5. However, in light of these other papers, climate models have documented deficiencies in simulating the relevant surface fluxes. Multi-decadal natural internal variability (which is poorly simulated by the climate models) may be the dominant cause of the recent ocean warming (in terms of changes in ocean mixed layer depth and changes in sensible/latent heat fluxes).

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  10. #13050
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    The Impact of AMOC on Arctic Sea-ice Variability

    Salil Mahajan1, Rong Zhang2, Thomas L. Delworth2, Shaoqing Zhang2,
    Anthony J. Rosati2 and You-Soon Chang2

    1Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    2Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey
    http://curryja.files.wordpress.com/2...moc_arctic.pdf

    Conclusions and Caveats

    ! GFDL CM2.1 unforced simulation shows that AMOC can significantly
    modulate Arctic sea-ice on decadal/multi-decadal scales.

    The spatial pattern of AMOC associated Arctic variability in GFDL CM2.1 is
    similar to the observed trend in the Winter season.

    AMOC seems to have little impact on Pacific sector of the Arctic in GFDL
    CM2.1, where the observed decline is the strongest in the summer.

    AMOC fingerprints suggest that the AMOC has been strengthening in the
    past few decades.

    A strengthening AMOC could have contributed to the observed decline in the
    Arctic Sea-ice in the Winter, but not in the summer based on GFDL CM2.1
    results.

    AR2 model of AMOC fingerprints predicts a decline of the AMOC in the
    coming years, suggesting a weakening of the decrease in Arctic sea-ice.

    The above results are based on GFDL CM2.1 and 50 years of observational
    data.
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